The transport sector now accounts for about 23% (7.3 Gt) of annual global energy-related CO2 emissions (32 Gt). This is a significant rise (about 120%) from 3.3 Gt/year during the 1970s, and to achieve a two-degree scenario (2DS), CO2 emissions from transport would need to decline to 5.7 Gt annually. By 2015, global road transport CO2 emissions should have already peaked in order to achieve a 2DS, but this is not likely to happen under current trends. Non-OECD countries are expected to experience continued growth in motorization and travel demand (i.e. private vehicle motorization index for non-OECD countries could increase by about 7 times from 2000 levels by 2050). Oil is expected to remain the dominant transport fuel in the coming years, and thus must be offset by a rapid decarbonisation of fuels and scaling up of renewable energy in the transport sector.