This report assesses the 20th Conference of the Parties (COP20) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Lima, Peru in December 2014, as viewed through the lens of sustainable transport. The report is the final output of the Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT Partnership) and the Bridging the Gap Initiative (BtG) tracking team, which for the first time monitored five negotiating streams with particular relevance to transport, which included pre-2020 ambition, INDCs, nationally-appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs), technology transfer, and climate finance (a sixth area, adaptation, is also included among the areas of analysis in this document) at COP20.
Following the disappointing outcomes of COP19 Warsaw, COP20 Lima began with the benefit of several significant developments to raise optimism to define a blueprint for a binding global treaty at COP21 Paris. Discussions in Lima could benefit from the most recent Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2014 also brought signs of modest progress within UNFCCC technical processes, and hailed ambitious mitigation commitments from the European Union and the United States and China.
The principal achievement of COP20 is the Lima Call for Climate Action (LCCA), an agreement among nearly 200 countries that for the first time establishes ground rules for all Parties to submit Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) in 2015 to form the basis of post-2020 mitigation actions. Key outcomes of the LCCA as highlighted by the UNFCCC include progress on pre-2020 ambition, technology, finance, transparency, and adaptation. A number of follow-up reports from COP20 observers take more critical views of the LCCA, highlighting a lack of resolution, guidance, and clarity on key issues, and the significant effort required to clear stumbling blocks and narrow options in the draft negotiating text by May 2015.