IX. Freight systems efficiently combine different low-carbon modes, share capacities,
and rely on sustainable first and last mile delivery.
A freight system’s capacity to connect goods, markets and consumers determines the socio-economic development of countries and regions; and it is closely linked with industry and trade policies. For long-distance freight, modes of high and shared capacity are to be prioritized to bring down energy consumption per unit. Policies must encourage the use of the most efficient low-carbon energy carrier, and an efficient integration of operations across modes and borders. As transport will have to cater for the arising needs of an industry 4.0, investments in smart logistics should now be aligned with sustainable, low-carbon transport.
First and last mile delivery has the biggest potential to reduce energy-consumption, cost and overall the negative effects of transport, particularly in urban environments. Smart logistic operations and low-emission light vehicles that consume little space are to become the new normal of urban deliveries.