I. Transport connects people and prosperous societies, and works for them as a system of multiple modes and services.

Transport systems are to be designed to maximise access for people and goods. Offering and connecting multiple modes (active and motorised) and services (integrated, shared, on-demand) to an efficient system that serves all users equally, with the largest socio-economic benefit and at the lowest social and environmental cost and becomes the overarching goal of sustainable transport policy.

Facts and figures

Increasing pressure on urban areas: Over 55% of the global population lives in urban areas and the urban population share is expected to reach 68% by 2050. It means that an additional 2.5 billion people will live in cities by 2050. (Read more: UN DESA)

Share of trips by sustainable transport modes: Evidence from countries and cities (Hong Kong, Tokyo, Vienna) where walking and cycling are prioritised and integrated into the transport system demonstrates that a high mode share of walking, cycling and public transport can be ensured. High-density, mixed-use neighbourhoods and cities are particularly favourable for walking and cycling due to shorter trip distances, which also allows for more efficient and viable public transport provision and multimodal trips. (Read more: SLOCAT Transport and Climate Change Global Status Report – 2nd Edition)

Vehicle ownership trends: Private motorisation is rapidly increasing in Africa (where some countries experienced a growth of 250% or more between 2005 and 2015) and other regions. Car ownership is very high in North America (807 vehicles per 1,000 people) and Europe (500 vehicles per 1,000 people). (Read more: SLOCAT Transport and Climate Change Global Status Report – 2nd Edition)

Catalytic measures

  • Set mode share targets for biking and walking, public transport, and rail
  • Implement car-reduced residential areas
  • Finance transport investments based on their contribution to low-carbon and sustainable mobility
  • Invest in affordable and decarbonised public transport and level of service
  • Enhance security and service of public transport for women
  • Allocate more safe space to walking and biking
  • Allocate dedicated space to public transport
  • Prioritise and promote active modes, micromobility and public transport (e.g. dedicated lanes, improved availability of services and facilities, awareness and marketing of active modes, micromobility and public transport)
  • Introduce 30 km/h speed limits in urban areas
  • Manage and price parking (e.g. on street charges, workplace levies, parking maximums, pavement parking bans)
  • Regulate urban access to city centres (e.g. zero emission zones in city centres, access based on emissions)
  • Incentivize vehicle and ride sharing
  • Transition paratransit operators into formalised organisations
  • Regulate paratransit as a profession and economic activity
  • Combine paratransit professionalisation and fleet renewal for electrification
  • Integration of paratransit with public transport systems for feeder and last mile services
  • Promote digital application to enhance paratransit efficiency
  • Adopt and enforce air quality regulations
  • Price CO2 and integrate the transport sector to emission trading schemes
  • Phase out fossil fuel subsidies (e.g. diesel privileges)
  • Set Vision Zero/Safe System Approach targets for road safety
  • Provide on-demand services, where needed, in urban, suburban, and rural areas
  • Make user groups part of transport planning in rural communities
  • Invest in low-carbon rail passenger service
  • Invest in low-carbon rail freight service
  • Enable and mandate off-peak-hour delivery
  • Introduce workplace green travel plans (including but not limited to parking charges, car sharing, incentives for public transport use, teleworking, low carbon travel policies such as rail over aviation, etc.)
  • Engage major traffic generators (e.g. major employers, stadiums, business parks) in sustainable mobility schemes (flexible mobility services, parking cash out, parking levy)
  • Regulate export and import of second-hand ICE and EV vehicles through emission, safety, and recycling standards
  • Subsidise electric vehicles based on their contribution to access, safety, and use of space
  • Tax vehicles based on emissions, weight, footprint, and energy efficiency
  • Identify critical services and develop disaster management plans